Architecture as a product of culture, history, science, technology, economics, society, religion, and state
FIVE THOUSAND YEARS OF ARCHITECTURE AND CITY PLANNING IN THE WESTERN WORLD
A journey through five thousand years of architecture and urban planning in the Western world
© HILA BERLINER
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No part of this publication may be reproduced, or copied in any form or by any means without the prior permission of Hila Berliner
Each generation writes its autobiography in the buildings it creates.
Tuesday, May 10, 2011
EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE PART 1
EGYPTAINAN ARCHITECTURE - PART 1
The Period of the early dynasties - the First and Second Dynasty c. 3000 - 2686 BCE.
The First interim period: from the 9th dynasty until the 11th. C. 2160-2025.
The Middle Kingdom - second part of the 11th dynasty (which ruled over entire Egypt) until the 14th dynasty. C.- 2025 -1650 BCE.
During the 11th dynasty (c. 2025-1985 BCE), Mentjuhotep (ruled 2055-2004 BCE), successor to Intef II, unified Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt, set up Thebes as the capital city, and revitalized the centralized administration of the third dynasty. During his period and the period of Mentjuhotep III (2004-1992) architecturally innovative monuments were built. During the 12th dynasty (1985-1773 BCE) the pharaohs prominent as great builders were Amenemhat I (ruled 1985-1956 BCE), Senusret (also called Senusert) I (ruled 1956-1911 BCE), Senusret II (ruled 1877 -1870 BCE), and Amenemhat (also called Amenhemhet) III (1831-1786 BCE).Senusret II built a massive and winding dam connecting Bahr Yusef, a branch of the Nile, with Lake Fayum ("She-resy" in ancient Egyptian). This enterprise routed the excess water of the floods to an agricultural area, at whose end was located the city of Kahun, also built by Senusret II.
Second Interim Period: 15th to 17th dynasties
In parallel to the rule of the Hyksos, Pharaohs ruled Thebes. In 1550 BCE, the Hyksos were expelled, Egypt was united and the New Kingdom was established.
The New Kingdom: 18th to the 20th dynasty .1550 - 1069 BCE
A unique queen of the 18th dynasty was Queen Hatshepsut (ruled 1479-1458 BCE) under whose rule Egypt flourished for 21 years. A Woman queen was an unusual phenomenon in ancient Egypt (there were also other queens, but very few, including: Nitoqert who ruled during the Old Kingdom from 2184 to 2181 BCE, Sobeknorfu who ruled in the 12th dynasty between the years 1777-1773 BCE, and Tawosret (ruled 1188-1186), the last Pharaoh in the 19th dynasty). Although the social status of women in Egypt was very low, the Egyptians treated their queens as pharaoh. Hatshepsut left behind a prosperous and well-organized state and spectacular projects of architecture that she initiated.
King Psamtik I (ruled 664-610 BCE) of the Saite (from the city of Sais) 26th Dynasty, (664-525 BCE). reunited Egypt and kept away the Nubians of Thebes and Upper Egypt. He took advantage of the fact that the Assyrians were preoccupied with problems in the Assyrian Empire. The power of the Dynasties in the Delta area weakened and the power of Upper Egypt strengthened. The Saite dynasty period was a period of renewal for Egypt. Sais flourished and many temples of which a few have remained, were built. Many of the city's monuments were later transferred to Rome.
During this period King Nakhtnebef, [Nectabo] I (ruled 380-362 BCE) worked to revive the glorious past of Egypt. He built new temples throughout Egypt and restored old ones. During his time ties with the rulers of the city-states in Greece and Cyprus were stronger than ever.
Construction Materials and Methods
Ancient Egypt ground plans were often incorporated with the side sections, but these were rare compared to groundplans. One can see them especially in plans of small Egyptian temples.
Architectural models were no strangers to the ancient Egyptians. Such is the model (probably from the 12th dynasty) of underground rooms and corridors in the pyramid, which was found buried in the valley temple of Pharaoh Amenemhet III in Dahshur. In the limestone model rooms are arranged in groups and presented clearly but are schematic. The researchers believe that the model was used for building a pyramid that have not yet been revealed. Some Egyptologists link the model with the pyramid of Amenhemet III in Hawara, although the model does not match exactly the set of rooms and corridors in this pyramid.
Access to the chapel was permitted only to the priest and the family of the dead. Initially, as stated, the door was placed in the eastern wall (so that those who came to the tomb faced the west, the land of the dead), but later, the door was placed in the western wall. Usually, on the door was painted the figure of the deceased seated before a table of offerings, with inscription including details about him and his life (his title, details about his property, his slaves, and his officials) and ceremonial spells associated with the cult of death. These inscriptions were carved in stone or wood or just written on the wall.