Architecture as a product of culture, history, science, technology, economics, society, religion, and state




A journey through five thousand years of architecture and urban planning in the Western world



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Each generation writes its autobiography in the buildings it creates.

Louis Mumford

Friday, December 3, 2010


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Andreu, G., L'Égypte au Temps des Pyramides, Troisième Millénaire Avant J.C., Paris, 1994.
Arnold, D. et al., Temples in Ancient Egypt, New York, 1997.
Assman, J., The Mind of Egypt, History and Meaning in the Time of Pharaohs, London, 1996.
Aufrère, S., et al., L'Égypte Restituée , Tome 1 , Sites et Temples de Haute Égypte de L'Apogée de la civilisation Pharaonique a L'Époque Gréco- Romaine, Paris, 1994-1997.
Baikie, J., Egyptian Antiquities in the Nile Valley, London, 1932.
Brewer, D.J., et al., Egypt and the Egyptians, Cambridge, 1999.
Bromabe, B., The Occult Arts of Ancient Egypt, London, 1953.
Budge, E.W.A., Egyptian Magic, A History of Ancient Egyptian Magical Practices Including Amulets, Names, Spells, Enchantments, Figures, Formulae, Supernatural Ceremonies and Word of Power, New York, 1991 (1899).
Budge, E.W.A., Tutankamen, Amenism, Atheism and Egyptian Monotheism, New York, 1923.
Budge, E.W., A general Introductory Guide to the Egyptian Collections in the British Museum, London, 1930.
Casson, L., et al., Ancient Egypt, New York, 1965.
Champolion, J., The World of Egyptians, Geneve, 1971.
Charloux, G., "The Middle Kingdom Temple of Amun at Karnak" in: Egyptian Archaeology , The Bulletin of The Egypt Exploration Society, Autumn, 2005. p. 20-24,
Clark, R.T.R., Myth and Symbol in Ancient Egypt, London, 1959.
Crawford, C., Recasting Ancient Egypt in the African Context, Toward a Model Curriculum Using Art and Language, Trenon, New Jersey, 1996.
David, R., Religion and Magic in Ancient Egypt, London, 2002.
Dodson, A., After the Pyramids, The Valley of the Kings and Beyond, London, 2000.
Dodson, A., Egyptian Rock-cut Tomb, Buckinghamshire, 1991.
Donadoni, S. (Ed.), The Egyptians, Chicago, 1997 (1990).
Dunand, F. et al., Gods and Men in Egypt, 3000 BCE to 395 CE, London, 2004.
Ermann, A., Life in Ancient Egypt, New York, 1971.
Farina, G., Gramatica della Lingua Egiziana in Caracteri Geroglifoci, Milano, 1910.
Guillemette, A., L'Égypte au Temps des Pyramides IIIe Millénaire avant J.C., Paris, 1992
Hobson, C., The World of Pharohs, New York, 1987.
Hope, M., The ancient Wisdom of Egypt, London, 1983.
Hornung, E., Akhenaten and the Religion of Light, Ithaca, 1999.
Humbert, J.M. et al, Imhotep Today: Egyptianizing Architecture, London, 2003.
Isler, M., Stick, Stones and Shadows, Building the Egyptian Pyramids, Oklahoma, 2001.
Kees, H., Ancient Egypt, A Cultural Topography, Chicago, Illinois, 1961.
Lalouette, C., L'Empire des Ramsès, Paris, 1995.
Lalouette, C., Thèbes ou La Naissance d'un Empire , Paris, 1995.
MacQuitty, W., Abu Simbel, London, 1963.
Maspero, G., Art in Egypt, London, 1912
Maspero, G., Manual or Egyptian Archaeology and guide to the Study of Antiquities in Egypt for the use of Students and Travelers. London, 1914.
Matthews, R., et al. (Ed.), Ancient Perspective on Egypt, London, 2003.
Montserrat, D., Akhenalen, History, Fantasy and Ancient Egypt, London, 2000.
Morenz, S., Egyptian Religion, London, 1973.
Morkot, R.G., Historical Dictionary of Ancient Egyptian Warfare, Oxford, 2003.
Morkot, R.G., The Egyptians, An Introduction, London, 2005.
Myśliwiec, K., The Twilight of Ancient Egypt, London, 2000.

O'Connor D. et al., Encounters with Ancient Egypt, Mysterious Lands, London, 2003.
Quirke, S., (Ed.), The Temple in Ancient Egypt, New Discoveries and Recent Research, London, 1997.
Patrick, R., Egyptian Mythology, London, 1972.
Ranke, H., The Art in Ancient Egypt, Architecture, Painting, Applied Art, London, 1936.
Redford, D.B., Akhenaten, the Heretic King, Princeton, New Jersey, 1984.
Roberts, A., Hathor Rising, The Serpent Power of Ancient Egypt, Trowbridge,1995.
Rossi, C., Architecture and Mathematics in Ancient Egypt, Cambridge, 2004.
Shaw ,I., et al., British Museum Dictionary of Ancient Egypt, London, 1995.
Steidorff, G., Egypt, New York, 1945.
Stevenson-Smith, W., Ancient Egypt as Represented un the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1960.
Tyldesley, J., Hatchepsut, The Female Pharaoh, London, 1998 (1996).
Watterson B., Amarna Ancient Egypt's Age of Revolution, Charleston, 2002 (1999).
Weigall, A., The Life and Times of Akhnaton, Paroh of Egypt, London, 1922.

The Aegean Civilizations
Alexiou, S., et al., Ancient Crete, London, 1968.
Casteleden, R., Minoans – Life in the Bronze Age Crete, London, 1990.
Cottrel, L., The Bull of Minos, New York, 1958.
Demargne, P., Aegean Art, The Origins of Greek Art, Gentilly, 1964.
Dickinson, O.T.P.K., The Aegean Bronze Age, Bristol, 1995. (1994).
Glotz, G., The Aegean Civilization, London, 1925.
Hawes, H., et al., Crete The Forerunner of Greece, London, 1909.
Hood, S., The Home of the Heroes, the Aegean Before the Greeks, London, 1967
Matton, R., La Crète Antique, Athènes, 1955.
Platon, N., Crete, London, 1970.
Taylour, W., The Mycenaeans, London, 1983 (1964).
Treuil, R., et al., Les Civilizations Egéenes – du Neolithique et de l’âge du Bronze, Paris, 1989
Warren, P., The Aegean Civilizations, Oxford, 1975.
Wunderlich, H.G., The Secret of Crete, Athens, 1983.

Antiquity - Greece and Rome
ויטרוביוס, (תרגום: רייך, ר.) על אודות האדריכלות בעשרה ספרים , תל אביב, 1997.
סג"ל א, "מקדשי בעלבק" – סקירה אדריכלית היסטורית מתוך: קדמוניות, רבעון לעתיקות ארץ ישראל וארצות המקרא, חוברת 1 (117), 1999.
פלג, ר., מקדשים עגולים בעולם הרומי, תל אביב, 2003.
Ashbee, T., The Aqueducts of Ancient Rome, Michigen, 1985 (1935).
Boardman, J., Greek Art, New York, 1994 (1964).
Cameron, A., The Later Roman Empire, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1993.
Carcopino, J., Daily Life in Ancient Rome, London, 1957 (1923).
Colledge, M., How to Recognize Roman Art, Milan, 1979.Conti, F., How to Recognize Greek Art, Milan, 1978.
Cook, R., and Cook, K., Southern Greece, An Archaeological Guide, Attica, Delphi and Pelopponnese, London, 1968.
Coulton, J.J., Ancient Greek Architects at Work, Problems of Structure and Design, London, 1977.
De Bourgh, The Legacy of the Ancient World, London, 1953.
Elderkin, G.W., Problems in Periclean Buildings, Washington D.C., 1973.
Hafman, G., Greca e Grecia, Milano, 1969.
Heinze, H., Roman Art, London, 1988 (1972).
Hennig M. et al., Pagan Gods and Shrines of the Roman Empire, Oxford, 1986.
Holmberg, E,J., Athens, Gothenburg, 1978.
Ling, R., Classical Greece, Oxford, 1988.
MacDonald, W.L., The Architecture of the Roman Empire, London, 1986.
Mackendrick, P.L., The Greek Stones Speak, the Story of Archaeology in Greek Lands, London, 1962.
Mackendrick, P., Roman France, London, 1971.
McKay, A.g., Houses, Villas and Palaces in the Roman World, New York, 1975.
North Fowler, H. et al., Handbook of Greek Archaeology, New York, 1909.
Pollitt, J.J., Art and Experience in Classical Greece, New York, 1972
Robertson, D.S., Greek & Roman Architecture, Cambridge, 1971.
Robinson, C.E., Everyday Life in Ancient Greece, Oxford, 1933.
Schuchhardt, W.H., La Grèce, Paris, 1966.
Sear, F., Roman Architecture, London, 1982.
Seyffert, O., A Dictionary of Classical Antiquities, Mythology, Religion, Literature, Art, New York, 1956.
Sranton, R.L., Greek Architecture, New York, 1962
Suetonius, The Lives of the Twelve Caesars, New York, 1931.
Thallon Hill, I., The Ancient City of Athens, Its Topography and Monuments, Chicago, 1953.
Tomlison, R.A, Greek and Roman Architecture, London, 1995. Ulrich, R.B., The Roman Orator and Sacred Stage, The Roman Templum Rostratum, Bruxelles, 1994.
Vermeule, C., Roman Art : Early Republic to Late Empire, Cambridge, 1978.
Vitruvius, (Trans. Rowland, I.D.), Ten Books on Architecture, ambridge, U.K., 1999.
Warner, R., Eternal Greece, New York, 1953.Wilkes, J.J., Diocletian’s Palace, Split, Sheffield, 1986.
Wycherley, R.E., The Stones of Athens, Princeton, 1978.

Medieval Architecture 
Abulafia, D., et al. (Ed.), Church and City, 1000-1500, Essays in Honour of Christopher Brooke, New York, 1992.
Adam, E., Architecture Mיdiיvale, (Tome I, II), Paris, 1966.
Bagley, J.J., Life in Medieval England, New York, 1960.
Barral I Altet, X., The Romanesque, Towns, Cathedrals and Monasteries, New York, 1998.
Berstein, S. et al., Histoire de l'Europe Vol.2., De L'Empire Romain A L'Europe, Paris, 1994.
Bovini, G., Ravenna, New York, 1971.
Bovini, G., Ravenna, Art and History, Ravenna, 1979.
Browne, E.A, Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture, London, 1912.
Browning, R., Justinian and Theodora, London, 1971.
Bulley, M., Ancient and Medieval Art, London, 1996 (1914).
Buttler, H.E., et al., (Ed.), The Chronicle of Jocelin of Brakeland, New York, 1949.
Cantor, N.F., Medieval History, The Life and Death of a Civilization, London, 1969.
Coldsream, N., Medieval Craftsmen, Masons and Sculptors, London, 1991.
Conant, K.J., Carolingian and Romanesque Architecture 800-1200, Harmondsworth, 1966 (1959).
Davy, M., Initiation a La Symbolique Romane, (XII Siטcle), Paris, 1977.
Deanesley, M., A History of the Medieval Church, 590-1500, London, 1972 (1969).
Demaison, L., Cathיdrale de Reims, Paris, N.D.
Diehl, C., Manuel D’Art Byzantin, Paris, 1925.
Downey, G., Constantinopole in the Age of Justinian, N.Y., 1965 (1960).
Duby, G., Medieval Art, The Making of Christian West, 980-1140, Geneva, 1995 (1966).
Dunlop, I., The Cathedral’s Crusade, The Rise of the Gothic Style in France,London, 1982.
Eco, U., The Aesthetics of Tomas Aquinas, Milan, 1988 (1956).
Enaud, F., Les Chateaux Forts en France, N.P., 1958.
Eusebius, Life of Constantine (translation and commetary Cameron, A et al., Oxford, 1999.
Evans, J., Life in Medieval France, London, 1969 (1925).
Focillon, H., The Art of the West, Romanesque Art, London, 1969 (1963).
Focillon, H., Le Moyen Age Gothique, Paris, 1971.
Foss, C., et al., Rome and Byzantium, Vienna, 1977.
Frankl, P., The Gothic Literary Sources and Interpretations Through Eight Centuries, Princeton, New Jersey, 1960.
Geanacoplos, D.J., Bysantium, Church, Society and Civilization Seen Through Contemporary Eyes, London, 1986 (1984).
Gilmore Holt, E., (Ed.) A Documentary History of Art, Vol. I, The Middle Ages and theRenaissance, Pinceton, 1981 (1947).
Gimpel, J., Les Batisseurs de Cathedrals, Bourges, 1958.
Gimpel, J., The Medieval Machine, The Industrial Revolution of the Middle Ages, New York, 1976 (1974).
Goy, R.J., The House of Gold, Building a Palace in Medieval Venice, New York, 1992.
Grabar, A., The Beginning of Christian Art, 200-395, N.P., 1967 (1966).
Grabar, A., L’Eta D’Oro di Giustiniano, 1980.
Greenhalgh, M., The Survival of Roman Antiquities in the Middle Ages, London, 1989.
Harvey, J., English Cathedrals, London, 1961.
Henderson, G., Chartres, Harmondsworth, 1968.
Hernian, J., The Stone Skeleton, Structure Engineering of Masonry Architecture, New York, 1997 (1995).
Hubert, I. et al. L’Impero Carolingio, Milano, 1981 (1968).
Hugo, V., Notre Dame de Paris, Paris, 1942.
Huysmans, J.K., Trois ֹglises, Trois Primitifs, Paris, 1908.
Jackson, T.G., Gothic Architecture in France, England and Italy, New York, 1975.
Jansen H., High Gothic, the Cathedrals of Chartres, Reims, and Amien, Hamburg, 1957.
Jantzen, H., High Gothic, Hamburg, 1962.
Kazhdan, A., et al., People and Power in Byzantium, An Introduction to Modern Byzantine Studies, Washongton D.C., 1991(1982).
Kay, R. (Ed.), The Broadview Book of Medieval Anecdotes, New York, 1988.
Krautheimer, R., Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture, Middlesex, 1986 (1965).
Kubach, H.E., Architecture Romane, Milano, 1989.
Kunstler, G. (Ed.), Romanesque Art in Europe, Vienna, 1968.
Laiou, A.E. et al., (Ed.), Bysantium, A World Civilization, Washington, D.C., 1992.
Lemerle, P., Le Style Byzantin, Paris, 1943.
Maillard, D., L’Art Byzantin, Son Origine, Son Caracere tet Son Influence sur La Formation de L’Art Moderne, Paris, N.D.
Mגle, E., The Gothic Image, Religious Art in France of the Thirteenth Century,New York, 1958.
Mango, C., et al.,(Ed.), The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor, Byzantine and Near Eastern History, AD 284-813, Oxford, 1997.
Martin, H., (Ed.), L’Art Roman, Paris, 1946.
Matthew, D., The Norman Kingdom of Sicily, New York, 1992.
McLean, T., Medieval English Gardens, London, 1989.
Murraro, M., Treasures of Venice,The Church of St. Mark’s, The Ducal Palace, The Gallerie Dell’Accademia, The Architecture and Monuments of Venice, Paris, 1963.
Murray, S., Beauvais, Cathedral, Architecture Transcendence, Princeton, New Jersey, 1989.
O’Meara, T.F.O.P, Thomas Aquinas, Theologian, London., 1997.
Panofsky, E., Architecture Gothique et Pensיe Scolastique, Paris, 1968.
Platt, C., The Atlas of Medieval Man, London, 1982.
Procopius (trans. Dewing, H.B), Buildings, London, 1961 (1940).
Porter, A.K., Medieval Architecture: Its Origins and Development, New York, 1969 (1909).
Pullan, B., (Ed.), Sources for the History of Medieval Europe from the Mid-Eighth to the Mid-Thirteen Century, London, 1971 (1966).
Radding, C.M., Medieval Architecture Medieval Learning, Builders and Masters in the Age of Romanesque and Gothic, London, 1992.
Robrts, M., Durham, London, 1994.
Sas-Zaloziecky, L’art Palיochrיtien, Paris, 1966.
Searle, E., (Ed.), The Chronicle of Battle Abbey, Oxford, 1980.
Shelby, R.L., "Geometry", in: Wagner, D.L., (Ed.), The Seven Liberal Arts in the Middle Ages, Bloomington, Indiana, 1983.
Simons, G., The Birth of Europe, Amsterdam, 1968.
Sirano, V.T., Galla Placidia, La Nobilissima (392-450), Milano, 1986.
Soisson, P. and J., Byzantium, Genטve, 1977.
Sumpion, J., Pilgrimage, an Image of Medieval Religion, London, 1975.
Taylor, H.O., The Emergence of Christian Culture in the West, New York,1958.
Thrupp, S.L., Early Medieval Society, New York, 1967.
Tierny, B., (Ed.), Sources of Medieval History, New York, 1970.
Toman, R., Romanesque Architecture, Sculpture, Painting, Kײln, 1997.
Toman, R., The Art of Gothic – Architecture, Sculpture, Painting, Cologne, 1998.
Vernolle, E., L’Art Monumental de la France Romane le XIe Siecle, London, 2000.
Verzone, P., The Dark Ages from Theodoric to Charlemagne, New York, 1967.
Walter, C., Art and Ritual of the Byzantine Church, London, 1982.
Ward, C., Chartres, The Making of a Miracle, London, 1986.
Whitting, P.(Ed.), Byzantium, an Introduction, London, 1972.
Whitney, S.S., Monastery and Cathedral in France, Middletown, Conneticut, 1968
Young, B., A walk Through the Cloisters, New York, N.D.
Zanini, E., Introduzione All’Archeologia Bizantina, Roma, 1998 (1994).

Renaissance Architecture 
בורקהרט, י., תרבות הרנסנס באיטליה, ירושלים, תשי"ג.
Ackerman, J., "The Involvement of Artists in Renaissance science" in : Shirley W. et al (Ed.)., Science and Arts in the Renaissance, London, 1985.
Ackerman, J.S., The Architecture of Michelangelo, Harmondsworth, 1970 (1961).
Ady, C.M., Lorenzo dei Medici and Renaissance Italy, New York, 1966 (1962).
Barclay Parsons, W., Engineers and Engineering in the Renaissance, London, 1976.
Benevolo, L., The Architecture of the Renaissance, Colorado, 1978.
Blunt, A., Artistic Theory in Italy, 1450-1600, Oxford, 1962 (1940).
Blunt, A., Art and Architecture in France, 1500-1700, Harmondsworth, 1973 (1973).
Bocchi F., Le Bellezze della Citta di Fiorenza, Florence, 1591, N.P., 1971.
Burckhardt, J., The Architecture of the Italian Renaissance, London, N.D.
Burroughs, B. (Ed.), The Essential Vasari, Biographies of the Most Eminent Architects,Painters, and Sculptors, in Italy, London, 1956.
Burroughs, C., From Signs to Designs, Environment Process and Reform in Early Renaissance Rome, 1991.
Carman, H., C., Images of Humanist Ideals in Italian Renaissance Art, New York, 2000.
Chauveau, G.M., The Chateau of Azay-le-Rideau, an Historical Guide, Paris, N.D.
Cloudas, I., et al., Treasures of the French Renaissance, New York, 1998.
Coffin, D.R., The Villa D’Este at Tivoli, Princeton, 1960.
Fallico, A.B., et al., The Italian Philosophers, Selected Readings from Petrarch to Bruno, New York, 1967.
Gilmore, M.P., The World of Humanism, 1453-1517, New York, 1962.
Goldthwaite, R. A., The Building of Renaissance Florence, An Economic and Social History, London, 1980.
Gromont, G., Histoire Abergיe de l’Architecture de la Renaissance en Itali, Paris, 1914.
Hartt, F., History of the Italian Renaissance, London, 1987 (1987).
Hydenreich, L.H., and Lotz, W., Architecture in Italy 1400-1600, London, 1974.
Holmes. G., The Florentine Enlightenment 1400-1450, New York, 1992.
King, R., Brunelleschi's Dome, How a Renaissance Genius Reinvented Architecture, London, 2001.
Knecht, R.J., The Rise and the Fall of Renaissance France, 1483-1610, London,1996.
Kristeller, P.O., Renaissance Thought, Papers on Humanism and Arts, London, 1965.
Martin, M., La Renaissance Franחaise, Paris, 1933.
More, T., The Utopia of Thomas More, London, 1947.
Palladio, A., The Four Books on Architecture, London, 1997.
Pierotti, P., Prima di Machiavelli, Filarete et Francesco di Giorgio del Principe, Pisa, 1995.
Richter, I.A., (Ed.), Selections from Notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci, London, 1953(1952).
Stinger, C.L., The Renaissance in Rome, N.P., 1985.
Summerson, J., The Classical Language of Architecture, London, 1988 (1963).
Szambien, W., Symetrie, Goût, Caractère, Théotie et Terminologie de L’Architecture a l'Âge Classique,1550-1800,
Paris, 1986
Turner, R. R., The Renaissance in Florence, The Birth of A new Art, London, 1997.
Vauhan, H., et al., Sebastiano Serlio, On Architecture, Tutte L’Opera D’Architeturra, et Prospetiva by Sebastiano Serlio, London, 1996.
Ward, W.H., The Architecture of the Renaissance in France, A History of the Evolution of the Arts of Building, Decoration and Garden Design under Classical Influence from 1495 to 1830, London, 1911.
Wittkower, R., Architectural Principles in the Age of Humanism, London, 1967.
Wolflin, H., Renaissance and Baroque, London, 1964

Baroque and Rococo
ביילי ס., ותומסון, ב., תרבות ההשכלה, הגות ואמנות באירופה של המאה ה-18, יחידה 7: אדריכלות צרפתית בתקופת ההשכלה, תל אביב, 1991.
Anderson, L., Il Barrocco, e il Roccoco, Milano, 1969.
Blitzer, C. et al., Age of Kings, Amsterdam, 1968.
Blunt, A., Borromini, London, 1979.
Blunt, A. et al., Baroque & Rococo, Architecture and Decoration, new York, 1978.
Cannon Brookes, P. and C., Baroque Architecture, New York, 1969.
Charpentrat, P. et al., Baroque, Italy and Central Europe, Lausanne, 1964.
Friedrich, C.J., The Age of Baroque, 1610-1660, New York, 1952.
Gowan, C.D.O, The Background of the French Classics, London, 1960.
Harry, J.H., Trade and Dominion, European Overseas Empires in Eighteenth Century, London, 1971.
Held, S., et al., 17th and 18th Century Art, Baroque Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, New York, N.D.
Hume, D. On the Standard of Taste and other Essays, New York, 1965.
Martin, H., Le Style Louis XIV, Paris, 1927.
Martin, H., Le Style Louis XV, Paris, 1928.
Millon, H., A., Baroque & Roccoco Architecture, London, 1961.
Norberg – Schulz, Baroque Architecture, New York, 1971.
Palacios, A., G., The Age of Louis XV, New York, 1969.
Panofski, E., "What is Baroque?" in: Three Essays on Style, London, 1997.
Pignatti, I., Il Roccoco, Milano, 1966.
Portoghesi, P., Roma Barrocca, Rome, N.D.
Rudé, G., Europe at the Eighteenth Century, Aristocracy and Bourgeois Challenge, London, 1972.
Rykwert, J., The First Moderns, the Architects of the Eighteenth Century, London, 1980.
Smith, G.R., Architectural Diplomacy, Rome and Paris in the Late Baroque, London, 1993.
Spielman, J.P., Leopold I of Austria, New Jersey, 1977.
Summerson, J., The Architecture of the Eighteenth Century, New York, 1994 (1969).
Toman, R., Baroque, Architecture, Sculpture, Painting, Kצln, 1998.
Whinney, M., Wren, London, 1978.

The Age of Reason 
יפימוב, א.וו., תולדות הזמן החדש, 1789-1870, תל אביב, 1951.
Abraham, A., The Architecture of the French Enlightenment, Los Angeles, 1980. Brinton, C., (Ed.), The Portable Age of Reason, New York, 1950.
Collins, P., Changing Ideals in Modern Architecture, London, 1965.
Condit, C. W., American Building, Chicago, 1968.
Evers, H., G., The Modern Age, London, 1970 (1967)
Gilmore Holt, E., (Ed.), From the Classicists to the Impressionists, Art and Architecture in the 19th Century, Vol. III, of A Documantary History of Art, New York, 1957.
Laugh, J., The Encyclopédie, Génève, 1989.
Manuel, E., The Age of Reason, New York, 1954 (1951).
Munck, T., The Enlightenment, A Comparative Social History 1721-1794, London, 2000.
Nussbaum, F., L., The Triumph of Science and Reason 1660-1685, New York, 1953.
Perez-gomez, Architecture and the Crisis of Modern Science, London, 1990 (1983).
Saisselin, R.G., The Enlightenment against the Baroque, Oxford, 1992.
Snyder, L.L., The Age of Reason, London, 1955.
Starobinski. J., 1789-The Emblems of Reason, London, 1988 (1982).
Toman, R.(Ed.), Neoclassicism and Romanticism, Architecture, Sculpture, Painting, Drawing, 1750-1848, Cologne, 2000.
Vilder, A., The Writing of the Walls, Architectural Theory in the Late Enlightenment, New York, 1987.
Vilder, A., Claude Nicolas Ledoux, London, 1990.

 The Revivals and Eclectic  Architecture in the 19th Century
Carrot, R.G., The Egyptian Revival, It’s Sources, Monument and Meaning 1808-1858, London, 1978.
Crook, J.M., The Greek Revival, London, 1968.
Dixon, R., et al., Victorian Architecture, London, 1985.
Earles, I.A., Napoleon III L’Architecte et L’Urbanisme de Paris, Paris, 1991.
Ferriday, P., (Ed.), Victorian Architecture, New York, 1964.
Heyer, P., Architects on Architecture, New Directions in America, New York,1966.
Mordaunt, Crook, J.C., The Greek Revival London, 1968.
Pugin, A.W., Pugin, (London, 1836), Contrasts, or Parallel between the Noble Edifices of the Present Day ; Shewing the Present Decay of Taste, Accompanied by Appropriate Text, New York, 1973.
Pugin, A.W., The True Principles of Pointed or Christian Architecture, London, 1853.
Ruskin, J., Seven Lamps of Architecture, New York, 1963 (1907).
Van Eck, C., Organicism in Nineteenth Century Architecture, an Inquiry into its Theoretical and Philosophical Background, Amsterdam, 1994.
Watkin, D., Morality and Architecture, The Development of a Theme in Architectural History and Theory from the Gothic Revival to the Modern Movement, Oxford, 1977.

Industrial Architecture
Beaver, P., The Crystal Palace, A portrait of Victorian Enterprise, Chichester, 1993.
Brockman, H.A.N., The British Architect in Industry, 1841-1890, London, 1974. rockman, H.A.N., The British Architect rockman,,,mmנB
Chadwick, F., G., The Works of Sir Josef Paxton, 1803-1865, London, 1961.
Cunningham, C., Building for the Victorians, London, 1985.
Jefferis, M., Politics and Culture in Willhemine Germany, the Case of Industrial Architecture, Oxford, 1955.
Mckean, J., Crystal Palace, Josef Paxton and Charles Fox, London, 1994.
Winter, J., Industrial Architecture, A Survey of Factory Building, London,1970.

Chicago School
Andrews, W., Architecture, Ambition, and Americans, A History of American Architecture, London, 1979.
Duncan, H.D., Culture and Democracy, the Struggle for Form in Society and Architecture in Chicago and the Middle West During Life and Times of Louis H. Sullivan, New York, 1965.
Larson, G.A., et al., Chicago Architecture and Design, New York, 1990.
Mumford, L., Sticks & Stones, A Study of American Architecture and Civilization, New York, 1955 (1954).
Pfammatter, U., The Making of the Modern Architect and Engineer, The Origin and Developmaent of a Scientific and Industrially Oriented Education, Bazel, 2000.
Siegel, A. (Ed.), Chicago’s Famous Buildings, Chicago, 1969 (1965)

Art Nouveau 
נונל, ח.ב. (עורך), אנטוני גאודי (1926-1852), תל אביב, 1990.
Abbate, F. (Ed.), Art Nouveau The Style of the 1890s, London, 1972.
Aubrey, F., et al., (Ed.), Horta-Art Nouveau to Modernism, Bruges, 1997.
Casanelles, E., Antonio Gaudi, A Reappraisal, Barcelona, 1965.
Cohen, M., Victor Horta, Bologna, 1998 (1994).
Lara Vinca, M., Art Nouveau, New York, 1976.
Madsen, T., L’art Nouveau, Paris, 1967.
Schmuttzler, R. Art Nouveau, New York, 1962.
Sola-Morales, I., Gaudi, Barcelona, 1984.
Zerbst, R., Gaudi, 1852-1926, Antoni Gaudi I Cornet, A Life Dedicated to Architectuew LifeDedicated to Dedicated to Architecture, Koln, 1993.

 Modern Architecture
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Postmodernism and Deconstruction 
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Skyscrapers in New York
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